Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson’s disease is currently the second most common brain degenerative diseases that affects over more than 1% of the world population and over more than a million Americans. Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the presence of clinical symptoms such as loss of balance, discoordination and rigidity of the limbs, shuffling feet and tremors which impairs mobility in the patient (motor symptoms). To date there is no cure and current standard of care (Levodopa and dopamine receptor agonists) only temporarily alleviates motor symptoms. These clinical symptoms are caused by a reduction in the neurotransmitter dopamine due to a loss of dopamine neurons located in the midbrain as a consequence of increase stress (oxidative stress) and accumulation of protein trash inside neurons called Lewy bodies. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include chronic fatigue and cognitive decline. Our line of three intranasal products in development within our pipeline are designed to reverse motor symptoms and reverses the loss of neurons by stimulating neuroprotective signaling pathways to


  1. Dagda RK, Dagda RY, Vazquez-Mayorga E, Martinez B, Gallahue A. “Intranasal Administration of Forskolin and Noopept Reverses Parkinsonian Pathology in PINK1 Knockout Rats” Int J Mol Sci . 2022 Dec 30;24(1):690. doi: 10.3390/ijms24010690.
  2. Vazquez-Mayorga E, Grigoruta M, Dagda R, Martinez B, Dagda RK. “Intraperitoneal Administration of Forskolin Reverses Motor Symptoms and Loss of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons in PINK1 Knockout Rats”  J Parkinson’s Disease, 2022;12 (3): 831-850 DOI:10.3233/JPD-210316
  3. Patent: Ruben Dagda, Raul Dagda, “Disease modifying methods for treating neurodegenerative diseases using nootropic agents”, 2023/3, Application US20210220322A1, Patent, US11612583B2